Biomechanics of the natural, arthritic, and replaced human ankle joint

The human ankle joint complex plays a fundamental role in gait and other activities of daily living. At the same time, it is a very complicated anatomical system but the large literature of experimental and modelling studies has not fully described the coupled joint motion, position and orientation of the joint axis of rotation, stress and strain in the ligaments and their role in guiding and stabilizing joint motion, conformity and congruence of the articular surfaces, patterns of contact at the articular surfaces, patterns of rolling and sliding at the joint surfaces, and muscle lever arm lengths.The present review article addresses these issues as described in the literature, reporting the most recent relevant findings.

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Biomechanics of the natural, arthritic, and replaced human ankle joint

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